Stock Market Index

Definition: A stock market index is an aggregation of stocks that reflect a particular economy, market, sector, commodity, or any other investments investors might want to track. Data collected from a stock market index help stakeholders to compare current price levels with price levels in the past, in order to estimate or predict future market … Read more

Credit Rating

Definition: A credit rating is a ranking or prediction of the debt repayment ability (credit risk) of an individual, business, or government. In other words, a credit rating is a measure that informs a lender about the creditworthiness and loan repayment capacity of a borrower. The lower the credit rating the more the credit risk … Read more

Non-Profit Organizations

A nonprofit organization is a legal entity formed and operated for collective mutual, public or social benefits rather than the pursuit or accumulation of profits for owners or investors. The revenues of non-profit bodies are seen as surplus instead of profits in the organization’s income and expenditure account. A notable characteristic of non-profit organizations is … Read more

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance refers to a mental state of conflict whereby an individual’s behaviour doesn’t go hand in hand with his/her mindset or psychology. This is because an individual’s mind is always stuck between different perceptions, values, beliefs and attitudes. Today, his theory of cognitive dissonance is considered one of the most influential theories in social … Read more

Personal Branding

Definition: Personal branding is a promotional strategy which individuals use to project their strengths to the outside world.  Optimal personal branding should enable those who use it to stay ahead in their careers and eventually become authorities in their areas of specialization. In a scenario characterized by aggressive competition, there is a need for individuals … Read more

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Definition: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the phenomena stating that human beings follow a systematic upward order of wants or requirements. The bottom-most level involves physiological necessities while the topmost level is the desire of attaining self-actualization. Thus, at each level of needs fulfilment, human motivation rises. While this theory is old enough, it still … Read more

Line of Credit (LOC)

Definition: A line of credit (LOC) is a unique and flexible borrowing method offered by banks and other financial intermediaries to individuals, business firms, and governments. It is similar to a credit card because it allows the user to avail of a limited amount whenever needed and for whatever reason. This limited amount is referred … Read more


Definition: DAGMAR is a popular advertising strategy brought forward by Russell Colley in a 1961 report presented to the US Association of National Advertisers. This report was titled “Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results” (DAGMAR). The theory aims at setting defined and measurable advertising goals or objectives.  Both Colley and Solomon Dutka expanded it in … Read more

Capital Market

Definition: A capital market is a place where medium to long-term securities are traded. These securities include company shares and different forms of the private sector and government debt. Capital markets, among others, aim to boost transactional efficiencies by creating an avenue for holders and seekers of capital to transact. The capital market enables companies, … Read more

Succession Planning

Definition: Succession planning refers to the process or strategy through which an organization identifies and develops candidates competent to take up the leadership and other positions that the present occupants will vacate in the future due to expected or unexpected reasons like retirement, relocation to other companies, incapacitation, death, etc. These potential replacements can be … Read more