Definition: Job analysis is a step by step process of gathering, recording and studying the roles, responsibilities, tasks, duties, knowledge and abilities involved in a particular job position.
Job analysis is not just framing of the job description and specification, rather it is a rigorous process of deeply understanding a particular job position.
Content: Job Analysis
An e-commerce company needs e-commerce executives. The job analysis helped to prepare the following job advertisement to be posted on various job portals:
As we can see that the above job advertisement displays all the necessary insights of a particular job position as acquired through effective job analysis.
Job Analysis Process
Without a proper path, it becomes difficult to plan our direction. Therefore, we must understand the step by step process of job analysis as given below:
- Organizational Analysis: The management needs to understand the organizational requirements and objectives, to design an effective human resource strategy.
- Select Representative Positions: Next, analysts or human resource representatives are chosen to carry out the job analysis activities. They are internal resources of the organization.
- Gather Information: Now, the data related to the essentials of a particular job position is collected through different job analysis methods or techniques.
- Review Collected Data: This data is then reassessed to screen all the relevant information about a particular job position.
- Develop Job Description: A complete job position analysis helps to determine the responsibilities, activities, tasks, duties, objectives and authority possessed by that particular opening.
- Prepare Job Specification: Based on the job description, a relevant job specification is made which defines the essential attributes, abilities, qualities, skills, qualification, age and experience required for the specified job position.
Approach to Job Analysis
Job analysis becomes effective only when it optimally serves the human resource needs of the organization. Now, let us discuss the two essential concepts adopted under it:
Task-Oriented Approach: The foremost function is to adopt a task-oriented approach to create the job description which highlights the job inclusions, responsibilities and duties.
Employee Oriented Approach: The next concept considered under job analysis is the briefing on the qualities or attributes a candidate needs to possess for executing the job responsibilities. Thus, job specification is focused on employees’ traits.
Job Analysis Methods
How to analyze a certain job position? Isn’t it a cumbersome process?
Job analysis is based on rigorous research and study of the job positions. It is a simple but thoughtful process. Following are some of the most common ways of carrying it out:
The analyst can question the occupants or incumbents about their job profile to better understand a certain position. Also, the supervisors to the incumbents can be interrogated for getting details in the context of a particular job position.
This method proves to be a rich source of relevant insights for the management. However, the only drawback is that it is a time-consuming process, though group interviews will help the management to overcome this shortcoming.
Known for its cost-efficiency and wide application, the questionnaire is a popular technique of job analysis. The workers, their seniors and the managers are made to answers a set of questions compiled in the questionnaire form.
The analyst can determine the various internal and external factors influencing a particular job position. Also, the multiple aspects of job description and specification can be ascertained through it.
Job Incumbent Diary or Log
The work log or as we say the daily diary of the workers which specifies all the activities carried out by them throughout the day, provide useful inputs for the job analysis.
This method works very well when used along with the interview technique since it brings out even the minute details related to a job position. The traditional diary or work log is substituted by the pagers or the dictating machines to save time and improve efficiency.
Some of the work profiles include only repetitive and regular tasks of basic nature.
Therefore, job profiles like accounting or assembly line activities can be well-studied through ground level examination. The accuracy of the information accumulated depends upon the efficiency and attentiveness of the analyst.
Although, this method is prone to manipulation by the workers. Since they may pose a peculiar behaviour while they are being observed to mislead the analyst.
The supervisors who instruct and monitor the performance of incumbents, prove to be a valuable source of job analysis information. Thus, the analyst arranges for a supervisors’ conference to discuss and enlighten upon a certain job position.
Checklist or Job Inventory
A list is prepared to view or investigate the various job elements involving duties, tasks, functions, working hours, responsibilities, knowledge, expertise, skills, qualification, etc. It also helps to figure out if any of the job aspects are left unchecked.
Combination of Methods
Multiple methods can be adopted to discover the details of a job. Like, the interview method when applied along with the observation and questionnaire techniques provide appropriate results to the analyst.
However, as we know that this combination is mostly applied for the managerial, cashier or assistant job profiles.
Purpose of Job Analysis
What is the need for job analysis? Why do human resource team invest its time in such activities?
Job analysis fulfils the overall human resource requirements in an organization, and hence it holds high importance in any industry. Let us now go through its multiple objectives:
Job Evaluation and Compensation: A detailed analysis helps to understand a job position thoroughly. Also, it aids in determining suitable compensation policies for the workforce.
Recruitment and Selection: When the details of the job position requirements are well defined, the recruitment and selection process smoothen.
Personnel Information: The database of the candidates and the employees can be maintained consistently through job analysis.
Training and Development: It is a process which also initiates the planning for training and development of employees to acquire the necessary skills for task accomplishment.
Human Resource Planning: In the long and short-term manpower planning, job analysis initiates decisions related to the composition of a company’s human resource and requirements.
Placement and Orientation: It also aids the organization to carry out the process of placing the new employees at work and familiarizing them with their operations and the work environment.
Performance Review and Appraisal: Job analysis sets an expectation level for a job position and thus, for the new employee too. This simplifies the mechanism of work assessment.
Promotion and Transfer: While planning for the promotion of the existing employees or their transfer to the other branches, the management needs to conduct a job analysis to strategically fill the vacant positions.
Health and Safety: As the job specification and description are well stated, the management also becomes aware of the hazards and unfavourable conditions or risk involved in task executions. Thus, prior safety measures can be adopted to avoid such situations.
Labour Relations: To make amendments in the roles and responsibilities of a certain job position, to solve labour union issues, job analysis becomes crucial. All this improves the labour-management relations.
Career Path Planning: It also determines the scope of career growth for the employees. It, therefore, aids the human resource department to plan the future of each employee such that their personal and organizational needs are satisfied.
Work Redesign: With the changing organizational needs, adopting new ways and technology becomes essential. Thus, the job roles, responsibilities, duties and tasks are modified or redesigned to serve such requirements.
In human resource management, job analysis helps to determine the essentials of any job position and ensures the proper utilization of available manpower.